Animal Production Core

Director: Dr. Miranda Bernhardt


Animal Production Core

The Animal Production Core (APC) offers a range of services for generating and preserving gene-edited and genetically modified animal models for investigators at WSU and beyond. Embryo microinjection and micromanipulation services are available for generation of transgenic, knock-out, knock-in, or otherwise genetically engineered animals, using zygote or blastocyst injection with DNA, RNA, CRISPR-Cas9 reagents, or ES cells. The Animal Production Core works in close collaboration with the Gene Editing Reagent Core (GERC) to provide full-service genome editing services, from design of targeting strategies to delivery of founder animals to investigators. In addition, the APC can provide a range of traditional transgenic core services, with experience and expertise in embryo transfer surgeries, embryo and sperm cryopreservation and cryorecovery, rederivation of specific-pathogen-free lines, in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and other reproductive biology techniques. Well-established protocols are in place for working with mouse and rat embryos and gametes, and we are happy to work with other laboratory animal models and large animal species as well. Projects from investigators outside WSU are also welcome, and we are happy to discuss possible research


Please contact Dr. Miranda Bernhardt for more information or to discuss potential projects.

Services and Costs:

Microinjection for mouse model generation                      $1,850 - $3,200

Base rate may vary depending on complexity of project and number of embryo transfer sessions required. Cost does not include gene editing reagents, which may be produced by the WSU Gene Editing Reagent Core. Please contact Dr. Lisette Maddison or visit the GERC page for further information.

Mouse line rederivation                                                      $1,125 - $1,515

Existing live mouse lines may be rederived through embryo transfer to produce a specific pathogen-free population, or mice may be recovered from cryopreserved embryos or sperm.

Embryo Cryopreservation (mouse)                                    $760

Sperm Cryopreservation (mouse)                                      $250

Sperm and/or embryo cryopreservation can provide “insurance” in case of animal loss due to breeding failure, pathogens, or natural disasters. Cryopreservation can also simplify shipment and import of animal lines and can reduce cage costs for lines that are not actively needed. The decision to store sperm, embryos, or both can be based on the likelihood of needing to recover the line, as well as strain background and breeding considerations. A small yearly storage fee will be assessed to help offset maintenance costs ($25/year for up to 4 lines).

Custom reproductive biology techniques and non-mouse services          Cost varies

 While the majority of services the APC provides are for mice, standard protocols have been developed for rats and other species, and plans are underway to expand to large animal species, including cow and pig. We are also happy to assist with in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo transfer, embryo or gamete collections, custom micromanipulation or microinjection applications, and other reproductive biology services. Please contact the APC Director to discuss specific projects or requests.

  • Subsidized rates may be available depending on complexity of projects.
  • Washington State University will include an 8% administrative service charge for all out-of-area projects not supported by federal funds.
  • Detailed description of the scope of each service type may be found here. Because fees are based on actual costs for providing these services, we are unable to guarantee outcomes, but will ensure that minimum thresholds are met for each project.
  • The WSU Animal Production Core is here to support your animal research needs however we can. Please contact Dr. Miranda Bernhardt for more information or to discuss proposed projects.


Dr. Miranda Bernhardt


Scientific Assistants:

Blanca Lopez-Biladeau

Angie Mitzel