Participating Faculty

Kenneth Cain

Kenneth Cain

Department:Fish & Wildlife Resources, UI
Credentials:1997 - Ph.D., Washington State University-Animal Sciences
Office:CNR 105D
Mailing Address:Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources
University of Idaho
875 Perimeter Dr MS1136
Moscow, ID 83844-1136
Website:Click here

Research Interests

Fish Immunology/Pathology

Research Summary

Research interests focus primarily on evaluating the fish immune system and developing new and improved aquaculture vaccines. I have been involved with the analysis of disease progression and development of control strategies for viral (IHN), bacterial (Coldwater disease), and parasitic (whirling disease) diseases in salmonids. In addition, we are developing conservation aquaculture methods for application to recovery efforts for fish species of concern.  I have also investigated the role of mucosal immunity in fish and have found that significant antibody production can be stimulated in the mucosal component of the skin. Analysis at the molecular level suggests that localized site specific antibody production occurs and that fish have a much more primitive mucosal immune system than mammals.  These findings have evolutionary significance in relation to lower vertebrate development. Information obtained from these studies form a link to studies investigating the role of passive transfer of antibody in fish from mother to egg. This may be important in the development of broodstock vaccines to be used as a strategy to enhance immunity in newly hatched fry. One disease that is being investigated and is our primary focus is coldwater disease (CWD) caused by the bacterium, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, which severely affects salmonid fry and juveniles. We have characterized the immune response of fish to this pathogen and have incorporated a proteomic approach to identify target antigens for vaccine development. We have also patented an attenuated vaccine for this pathogen.  

Research Publications

Long, A., et al. (2015). "Comparison of quantitative PCR and ELISA for detection and quantification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in salmonid broodstock." Dis Aquat Organ 115(2): 139-146.

Makesh, M., et al. (2015). "Systemic and mucosal immune response of rainbow trout to immunization with an attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum vaccine strain by different routes." Fish Shellfish Immunol 44(1): 156-163.

Schubiger, C. B., et al. (2015). "Entericidin is required for a probiotic treatment (Enterobacter sp. strain C6-6) to protect trout from cold-water disease challenge." Appl Environ Microbiol 81(2): 658-665.

Long, A., et al. (2014). "Investigation of the link between broodstock infection, vertical transmission, and prevalence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in eggs and progeny of Rainbow Trout and Coho Salmon." J Aquat Anim Health 26(2): 66-77.

Plant, K. P., et al. (2014). "Attempts at validating a recombinant Flavobacterium psychrophilum gliding motility protein N as a vaccine candidate in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) against bacterial cold-water disease." FEMS Microbiol Lett 358(1): 14-20.

Long, A., et al. (2014). "Development of a waterborne challenge model for Flavobacterium psychrophilum." FEMS Microbiol Lett.

Wiens, G. D., et al. (2014). "Complete Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Strain CSF259-93, Used To Select Rainbow Trout for Increased Genetic Resistance against Bacterial Cold Water Disease." Genome Announc 2(5).

Valdenegro-Vega, V. A., et al. (2013). "Effect of immunization route on mucosal and systemic immune response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)." Vet Immunol Immunopathol 151(1-2): 113-123.

Long, A., et al. (2013). "Enhanced efficacy of an attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain cultured under iron-limited conditions." Fish Shellfish Immunol 35(5): 1477-1482.

Long, A., et al. (2012). "Validation of diagnostic assays to screen broodstock for Flavobacterium psychrophilum infections." J Fish Dis 35(6): 407-419.

Gliniewicz, K., et al. (2012). "Comparative proteomic analysis of virulent and rifampicin-attenuated Flavobacterium psychrophilum." J Fish Dis 35(7): 529-539.

Burbank, D. R., et al. (2012). "Isolation of bacterial probiotic candidates from the gastrointestinal tract of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), and screening for inhibitory activity against Flavobacterium psychrophilum." J Fish Dis 35(11): 809-816.

Lloyd, S. J., et al. (2011). "Quantitative PCR demonstrates a positive correlation between a Rickettsia-like organism and severity of strawberry disease lesions in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)." J Fish Dis 34(9): 701-709.

LaFrentz, B. R., et al. (2011). "Identification of immunogenic proteins within distinct molecular mass fractions of Flavobacterium psychrophilum." J Fish Dis 34(11): 823-830.

Plant, K. P., S. E. Lapatra, et al. (2011). "Immunization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with Flavobacterium psychrophilum proteins elongation factor-Tu, SufB Fe-S assembly protein and ATP synthasebeta." Journal of fish diseases 34(3): 247-250.

Polinski, M. P., J. D. Drennan, et al. (2010). "Establishment and partial characterization of a cell line from burbot Lota lota maculosa: susceptibility to IHNV, IPNV and VHSV." Dis Aquat Organ 90(1): 15-23.

Polinski, M. P., T. R. Fehringer, et al. (2010). "Characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, Lota lota (L.), to IHNV, IPNV, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Renibacterium salmoninarum." J Fish Dis 33(7): 559-570.

LaFrentz, B. R., S. E. LaPatra, et al. (2009). "Proteomic analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum cultured in vivo and in iron-limited media." Dis Aquat Organ 87(3): 171-182.

Lindstrom, N.M., D.R. Call, M.L. House, C.M. Moffitt, and K.D. Cain, A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and filtration-based fluorescent antibody test as potential tools to screen broodstock for infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum. J Aquat Anim Health, 2009. 21(1): p. 43-56.

Plant, K.P., S.E. LaPatra, and K.D. Cain, Vaccination of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss 
(Walbaum), with recombinant and DNA vaccines produced to Flavobacterium psychrophilum heat shock proteins 60 and 70. J Fish Dis, 2009. 32(6): p. 521-34.

LaFrentz, B.R., S.E. LaPatra, D.R. Call, and K.D. Cain, Isolation of rifampicin resistant 
Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains and their potential as live attenuated vaccine candidates. Vaccine, 2008. 26(44): p. 5582-9.

Chen, Y. C., et al. (2008). "Genetic diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum recovered from commercially raised rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), and spawning coho salmon, O. kisutch (Walbaum)." J Fish Dis 31(10): 765-773.

Lloyd, S.J., S.E. LaPatra, K.R. Snekvik, S. St-Hilaire, K.D. Cain, and D.R. Call, Strawberry disease lesions in rainbow trout from southern Idaho are associated with DNA from a Rickettsia-like organism. Dis Aquat Organ, 2008. 82(2): p. 111-8.

Shah, D. H., et al. (2008). "Challenges associated with heterologous expression of Flavobacterium psychrophilum proteins in Escherichia coli." Mar Biotechnol (NY) 10(6): 719-730.

Jensen, N. R., Williams, S. R., Ireland, S. C., Siple, J. T., Cain, K.D. 2008. Evaluation of egg  
Incubation methods and larval feeding regimes for North American burbot.  North American Journal of Aquaculture 70, 162-170

Jensen, N. R., Zuccarelli , M. D., Patton, S. J., Williams, S. R., Ireland, S. C., Cain, K. D. 2008.  
Cryopreservation and methanol effects on sperm motility and egg fertilization rates for North American burbot semen. North American Journal of Aquaculture  70, 38-42

Swan, C.M., N.M. Lindstrom, and K.D. Cain, Identification of a localized mucosal immune response in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), following immunization with a protein-hapten antigen. J Fish Dis, 2008. 31(5): p. 383-93.

Dodson, M. V., et al. (2008). "Unidentified cells reside in fish skeletal muscle." Cytotechnology 56(3): 171-178.

Plant, K. P., et al. (2009). "Vaccination of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with recombinant and DNA vaccines produced to Flavobacterium psychrophilum heat shock proteins 60 and 70." J Fish Dis 32(6): 521-534.

Ramsrud, A. L., et al. (2007). "Differentiating 16S rRNA alleles of Flavobacterium psychrophilum using a simple PCR assay." J Fish Dis 30(3): 175-180.

Cain, K.D. and B.R. Lafrentz, Laboratory maintenance of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and 
Flavobacterium columnare. Curr Protoc Microbiol, 2007. Chapter 13: p. Unit 13B 1.

Sudheesh, P. S., et al. (2007). "Sortase inhibitor phenyl vinyl sulfone inhibits Renibacterium salmoninarum adherence and invasion of host cells." Dis Aquat Organ 78(2): 115-127.

Drennan, J.D., S.E. Lapatra, C.A. Samson, S. Ireland, K.F. Eversman, and K.D. Cain, Evaluation of lethal and non-lethal sampling methods for the detection of white sturgeon iridovirus infection in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus (Richardson). J Fish Dis, 2007. 30(6): p. 367-79.

Drennan, J.D., S.E. Lapatra, C.M. Swan, S. Ireland, and K.D. Cain, Characterization of serum and mucosal antibody responses in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson) following immunization with WSIV and a protein hapten antigen. Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2007. 23(3): p. 657-69.

LaFrentz, B.R., N.M. Lindstrom, S.E. LaPatra, D.R. Call, and K.D. Cain, Electrophoretic and Western blot analyses of the lipopolysaccharide and glycocalyx of Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2007. 23(4): p. 770-80.

Sudheesh, P.S., B.R. LaFrentz, D.R. Call, W.F. Siems, S.E. LaPatra, G.D. Wiens, and K.D. Cain, Identification of potential vaccine target antigens by immunoproteomic analysis of a virulent and a non-virulent strain of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Dis Aquat Organ, 2007. 74(1): p. 37-47.

Drennan, J.D., S.E. LaPatra, J.T. Siple, S. Ireland, and K.D. Cain, Transmission of white sturgeon iridovirus in Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. Dis Aquat Organ, 2006. 70(1-2): p. 37-45.

Soule, M., et al. (2005). "Combining suppression subtractive hybridization and microarrays to map the intraspecies phylogeny of Flavobacterium psychrophilum." Infect Immun 73(6): 3799-3802.

Soule, M., et al. (2005). "Polymorphisms in 16S rRNA genes of Flavobacterium psychrophilum correlate with elastin hydrolysis and tetracycline resistance." Dis Aquat Organ 65(3): 209-216.

Biga, P. R., et al. (2004). "The effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on tissue IGF-I, IGF-I receptor, and GH mRNA levels in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss." Gen Comp Endocrinol 135(3): 324-333.

LaFrentz, B. R., et al. (2004). "Protective immunity in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss following immunization with distinct molecular mass fractions isolated from Flavobacterium psychrophilum." Dis Aquat Organ 59(1): 17-26.

Biga, P. R., et al. (2004). "Growth hormone differentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)." Gen Comp Endocrinol 138(1): 32-41.

Grabowski, L. D., et al. (2004). "Systemic and mucosal antibody response in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), following immunization with Flavobacterium columnare." J Fish Dis 27(10): 573-581.

Cavender, W. P., et al. (2004). "Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to identify Myxobolus cerebralis in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss." Dis Aquat Organ 60(3): 205-213.

LaFrentz, B. R., et al. (2003). "Passive immunization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome." J Fish Dis 26(7): 371-384.

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